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The characteristics of growth and general appearance of a plant.


The physical location or type of environment in which a plant or an organism is found.


A uni- or multi-cellular epidermal outgrowth.

Half sibs

Individuals derived from crosses in which one of the two parents is common.


Halophytes are plants which tolerate or even demand sodium chloride concentrations in the soil water they absorb. Depending on the habitat conditions they have developed different strategies to survive in sometimes very high salt content in the soil water. Depending on their tolerance and demands for sodium salts one distinguishes obligate and facultative halophytes. Obligatory means that they need some salt, facultative means they can live also under freshwater conditions.

Hand picking

Removing by hand.

Hand tractor

Walk-behind, two-wheel tractor commonly used for land preparation in wetland rice. Also called power tiller.

Hand weeding

A practical and efficient method used to manually remove weeds within rows and hills; used in areas where a cultivating implement cannot be used.

Haploid (n)

A cell or an organism with the gametic (n) chromosome number.

Haploid plant

Plant regenerated from anther or microspore culture with half the number of chromosomes of the diploid (symbol : n).

Hard dough stage

Stage when the rice grain is almost fully ripe.


A physically compacted soil layer restricting root growth and water movement through it.


A plant that can withstand and grow under severe adverse climatic conditions.


A cultivating implement usually with spikes or teeth used for secondary tillage to pulverize and smoothen the soil, mulching, covering, or removing weeds--e.g., comb-tooth or spike-tooth harrow and wooden plank.


A secondary tillage operation which pulverizes, smoothens and firms the soil in seedbed preparation. It controls weeds or incorporates material spread on the surface into the soil.


To cut and collect by hand or machine the grain or product of the plant.

Harvest index

The ratio of grain weight to total aboveground plant dry weight.


A person or machine that cuts and collects the product of a plant.


It is an operation of cutting, picking, plucking, digging or combination of these for removing the useful part or economic end product, part from the plant. To harvest manually, cut the rice with a sickle either at the stems close to the ground or cut just the panicle. Manual harvesting system is most common in India. It includes the rice crop is cut with simple hand sickle 10-15 cm above the ground level. After harvesting the rice crop put together in bundles and left on the field itself for drying for easy threshing. For harvesting of rice crop require 40-80 man hours per ha. Rice cutting is also done by using mechanical reapers. But for cutting the crop with reapers the field should be levelled. A reaper with a cutting-width of 1.5 m can operate at a rate of 2 to 4 ha per day.




In the nymph or larva of insects, to come out of the egg after the embryo has completed development.


1) A dense cluster of sessile or nearly sessile flowers.
2) The inflorescence or panicles of cereals such as rice and sorghum.

Head rice

The whole grains of milled rice that can be obtained from a given quantity of clean rough rice (paddy). It is usually expressed as a percentage of rough rice. Broken rice larger than 3/4 of a grain is also considered as head rice. Head rice may vary from as low as 25% to as high as 65%.


A process of growing seeds of individual plants to determine or maintain seed purity of a variety.


Growth stage of the rice plant marked by emergence of the panicle from the boot.

Headland pattern

A ploughing technique that makes a dead or back furrow ploughing pattern. This technique is used in many ploughing operations but especially in large operations using large tillage equipment.

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