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Attachment used for identification purposes in field trials. Can also refer to incorporated radioactive marker.


A substance that readily undergoes transformation or is readily available to plants. 

Labile genes

Genes that are always mutating.

Lag phase

First stage of the sigmoidal growth curve where growth declines within a brief span of time.

Lag phase (vegetative)

That portion of the vegetative phase affected by the photoperiod to which the plant is exposed. The period from end of basic vegetative phase to panicle initiation; also called photoperiod-sensitive phase.   

Lag phase (vegetative)

That portion of the vegetative phase affected by the photoperiod to which the plant is exposed. The period from end of basic vegetative phase to panicle initiation; also called photoperiod-sensitive phase.


The leaf blade.


1) Lance-shaped, several times longer than wide; widest towards the base and tapering at both ends.

2) Lance shaped, much longer than broad, widening above the base, and tapering to the apex.

Land Equivalent Ratio (LER)

The area needed under sole cropping to produce the same amount as 1 ha of intercropping or mixed cropping.

Land levelling

1) To provide a slope which fits a water supply; and
2) To level the field to its best condition with minimal earth movement and then vary the water supply for the field condition.
3) Land preparation involving moving soil from high to low spots in the field to achieve a flat horizontal surface so that irrigation water will be evenly distributed throughout the field.

Land preparation

The process of preparing the soil for planting, to provide a soil environment favorable for plant germination and/or growth.

Land race

A traditional variety of rice endemic to a given location.

Land Utilization Index (LUI)

The number of days during which crops occupy the land during a year, divided by 365.

Land water requirement

The net seepage and percolation requirement of the soil.


The morphology and specific character of the land surface resulting from the interaction of physical processes and the earth's crustal movements with the geology of the surface layers.


Land owned or occupied or used by farmers or tenant farmers.


The overall surface form of an area including both natural and man-made features; it includes various landforms among its properties.


The immature, wingless, and often vermiform (worm like) feeding form that hatches from the egg of many insects, alters chiefly in size while passing through several molts, and is finally transformed into a pupa or chrysalis from which the adult emerges.

Laser Levelling

Land Levelling through Laser Leveller is one such proven technology that is highly useful in conservation of irrigation water. Laser land levelling is levelling the field within certain degree of desired slope using a guided laser beam throughout the field. Unevenness of the soil surface has a significant impact on the germination, stand and yield of crops. Farmers also recognize this and therefore devote considerable time resources in levelling their fields properly. However, traditional methods of levelling land are cumbersome, time consuming as well as expensive.

Latent infection

The state in which a host is infected with a pathogen but does not show any symptoms.

Latent period

1) In epidemiology, latent period refers to the time elapsed from arrival of a dispersal unit at a susceptible plant surface until the formation of the next generation of dispersal units.
2) Incubation period of a virus in an insect. The time between acquisition of the virus and the time when it becomes infective.


On the side.

Latin Square Design (LSD)

Experimental design used when there are two sources of variation among experimental units, as in the presence of a bidirectional fertility gradient in field experiments.

Lattice designs

Incomplete block designs used in single-factor experiments having a large number of treatments.

Lattice energy

The energy required to separate the ions of a crystal to an infinite distance from each other.

Lax panicle

A panicle that is loose or open with a few lateral branches and sparsely distributed spikelets.

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