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s0

Symbol used to designate the original selfed plant.

s1, s2, etc

Symbols designating first-selfed generation (progeny of s0 plant), second-selfed generation (progeny of s1 plant), etc.

Saline

Containing salt.

Saline sodic soil

A soil containing soluble salts with sufficient exchangeable sodium to interfere with the growth of most crop plants. Soil whose saturation extract has an electrical conductivity greater than 4 ds/m, sodium adsorption ratio greater than 15, and pH less than 8.5.

Saline soil

A soil that contains sufficient salt in the root zone to impair plant growth. Its electrical conductivity is greater than 4 ds/m and exchangeable sodium percentage is less than 15.

Salinity

The state of consisting of or containing salt.

Salinity symptoms in rice

Leaves usually become whitish or chlorotic, growth is stunted and uneven, tillering is reduced.

Salinization

The process whereby soluble salts accumulate in the soil. 

Salt affected soil

Soil that has been adversely modified for the growth of most crop plants by the presence of soluble salts, exchangeable Sodium, or both.

Salt balance

The relation between the quantity of dissolved salts carried to an area by irrigation water and the quantity of dissolved salts removed by drainage water.

Salt tolerance

Ability of a plant to maintain productivity as salinity increases beyond and Electrical Conductivity of 4 ds/m.

Sample

A finite series of observations taken from a population; a portion of a population. Individuals taken from a population to represent it.

Sample size

The number of sampling units to be measured per plot, e.g., number of plants to be measured per unit area.

Sampling error

Deviation of a sample value from the true value owing to the limited size of sample or wrong sampling.

Sampling frame

A list of the numbers of a population from whom a sample will be taken. A frame placed over a section of crop to define the area sampled.

Sampling unit

The unit designated within the experimental plot for the measurement of a character to be made. A good sampling unit must be uniform, easy to identify, and easy to measure.

Saprophyte

An organism that subsists on dead organic matter and inorganic materials; nonpathogenic.

Saturate

1) To be totally wet, to fill all the voids between soil particles with a liquid. 2) To fill completely or load to capacity.

Saturated soil culture (SSC)

In saturated soil culture, the soil is kept as close to saturation as possible, thereby reducing the hydraulic head of the ponded water, which decreases the seepage and percolation flows. SSC in practice means that a shallow irrigation is given to obtain about 1 cm of ponded water depth a day or so after the disappearance of ponded water. Although conceptually sound, SSC will be difficult to implement practically since it requires frequent (daily or once every two days) applications of small amounts of irrigation water to just keep a standing water depth of 1 cm on flat land, or to keep furrows filled just to the top in raised beds. But can be an alternative if the situation become worsens.  

Saturation extract

An increment of solution obtained from a saturated soil paste.

Scald

A leaf disease in rice incited by a fungus known as Rhynchosporium oryzae. The lesion occurs very often at the margin or tip of the leaf. The typical lesions form characteristic zonations or bands as they spread and enlarge on leaves of susceptible varieties. Rice varieties with broad leaves appear to be more susceptible to leaf scald.

Scale

1) A highly modified leaf, usually sessile and dry. 2) The range of damage ratings, based on a numerical system, usually 0-9 where 0 = no plant damage and 9 = severe damage (all plants killed).

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

An electron microscope in which a beam of focused electrons moves across the object and the electrons scattered by the object being collected to form a three-dimensional image on a cathode-ray tube.

Scarification

Treatment to rupture the seed coat sufficiently to permit entry of water to initiate germination.

Scarify

To loosen the topsoil aggregates by means of raking the soil surface with a set of sharp teeth harrows or other instrument.

Scarious

Applied to leaves or leaflike parts that are not green, but thin, dry, membranous, and often more or less translucent.

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