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T-test

A statistical test criterion in comparing two samples of data believed to be normally distributed.

Tag

A small marker usually tied to a plant, bag, or packet and used for identification and classification of samples.

Talc

A silicate mineral that is extremely soft and has a soapy or greasy feel; used as talc powder.

Target crop

One that has the potential to be a major crop, increasing the farmer's production and income.

Tegmen layer

Two layers of cells next to the pericarp of a seed which represent the inner cell layers of the inner integuments of the ovule. It is derived from the outer integuments in the ovule and which is destroyed before the caryopsis ripens. 

Telomere

Terminal region of chromosomes characterized by repeated DNA sequences.

Telotrisomic

A trisomic in which the extra chromosome has only one arm.   

Tempering

This means drying the grain on a drying pad for a number of hours or in a grain dryer, then tempering the grain by allowing it to cool for a number of hours in a bin or bag. This process should be repeated at least twice until the moisture is consistently at 14%.

Tendril

A slender, clasping or climbing organ of a stem or leaf.

Tensiometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of energy needed to extract water from the soil (usually expressed in kpa or cbars).

Terminal

At the end of branch or a stem.

Terrace

1) Bench-like portions of a former flat river floodplain left at higher levels by the downcutting action of a river; alluvial terraces and river terraces are generally considered as synonymous. 2) An artificially leveled field or series of fields made on sloping land.

Tertiary tillers

Arise from secondary tillers and are the third group of tillers to grow during the plant's development.

Test entries

Varieties or breeding lines being evaluated.

Test insect

The insect species and biotype against which a test entry is being evaluated.

Testa

Hard external coating or integument of a seed.

Testcross

A cross made between cytoplasmic male sterile line and a test variety to identify maintainers and restorers.

Testcross nursery

Breeding nursery where F1 progenies of cytoplasmic male sterile lines and test varieties are screened for pollen sterility/fertility and spikelet fertility to identify maintainers and restorers.

Tester

A cross between a selection, line, or clone and a common pollen parent which may be a variety, inbred line, or a single cross. The common pollen parent is called the top cross or tester parent.

Tester strain

A common parent, generally male, used in crosses with a series of lines in order to analyze the combining ability of lines.

Tetraploid

An organism with four basic (n) sets of chromosomes.

Thallus

A plantlike organism not divided into leaves, stem, and root. Mushrooms and lichen are examples of thalli.

Thermocycler

An apparatus which changes temperatures according to precise programming. Usually used with pcr, rapd, ap-pcr, and daf.

Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile Line (TGMS)

The genic male sterile plant which responds to temperature for expression of its pollen sterility/fertility.

Thinning

Removal of some plants to attain the desired population density.

Three line breeding

Breeding methodology where three lines, cytoplasmic male sterile, maintainer, and restorer are used to produce F1 hybrids.

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