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Udbatta disease

A rice disease caused by Balansia oryzae-sativae (Ephelis pallida pat). The panicles emerge as small cylinders covered with white mycelium.

Udic moisture regime

Pertaining to a soil moisture regime where the soil is not dry for as long as 90 cumulative days.

Umbel

An inflorescence in which a number of divergent flowers arises from the same point.

Undulate

With a wavy surface.

Undulate rachis

The primary panicle branches, especially the lower ones, have undulating secondary axes. This condition is caused by mechanical compression exerted on the branches owing to the premature extension of the axes while they are inside the flag leaf sheath. 

Unfilled spikelet

Grain that has not filled and matured due to adverse environmental conditions or other factors affecting its development.   

Uniform

Even; not varying; every factor has the same treatment.

Uniform drying

During the drying process there is always variability in moisture content of individual grains. Especially in fixed-bed dryers the grains at the air inlet dry faster than at the air outlet resulting in a moisture gradient in the grain bulk at the end of the drying process. For production of good quality grain or seed, this variability should be kept as low as possible. Frequent stirring in sun drying, grain turning in fixed bed dryers or circulation in re-circulating batch dryers will improve uniformity of drying, minimize the re-wetting of dried grains and thus maintain grain quality.

Uniformity trial (blank test)

A trial or experiment where all the operations and treatments are the same except that samples of different sizes are used to evaluate heterogeneity.

Unimproved plant type

A traditional plant type; tall, leafy, and susceptible to lodging.

Univalent

An unpaired chromosome in meiosis.

Upland

In general, land lying above the flood plain.

Upland field

A rainfed land area with no levees or dikes surrounding it to impound water; sowing is by direct seeding.

Upland rice cultivation

Rice grown on both level and sloping fields that are not bunded, that are prepared and seeded under dry conditions, and that depend on rainfall for moisture (without surface water accumulation).

Uproot

To pull up by the roots.

Ustic moisture regime

Pertaining to a soil moisture regime characterized by limited moisture during most of the year but with at least 1 rainy season of 3 months or more (e.g., in a monsoon climate) during which the soil is moist.

Utricle

A small, bladdery, one-seed fruit or any small bladderlike structure.

UV biometer

A broadband meter for UVB monitoring. It measures the biological effect of ultraviolet radiation.

UVA radiation

The longest waveband in the UV region that includes radiation from 320-400 nm range and is less hazardous.

UVB lamps

Fluorescent lamps used for simulating the damage caused by sunlight especially in the UVB region.

UVB radiation

The middle UV region containing radiation between 280 and 320 nm and which affects plants and humans.

UVC radiation

The shortest waveband in the UV region, between 200 and 280 nm and is extremely hazardous.

UVX radiometer

A broadband UV sensor used for the measurement of UV intensities.

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