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V-belt

Belt for transmitting power, commonly used in agricultural equipment.

V-belt seeder

A seeding device where seeds are metered by the size of the hole in a belt.

Variability (plant breeding)

Genotypic differences.

Variables

Data or some characteristics that show variability. The characteristic may be numerical (quantitative) or non-numerical (qualitative). 

Variance

A measure of dispersion which is the mean of the squares of deviations of the observations from the population mean. Estimated as the ratio of a sum of squares to the corresponding number of degrees of freedom.   

Variant

A plant that is different from the majority or from normal plants.

Variate

A single observation or measurement.

Variation

The occurrence of differences among cultivars due to differences in their genetic composition and/or the environment in which they were cultivated.

Varietal attributes

The characteristics of a variety of cultivated plant such as paddy.

Varietal diversity

The measurable differences among varieties grown in a particular area or the genetic diversity among varieties of the rice plant.

Varietal improvement

The process of improving varieties to meet the standards required.

Varietal release

The procedure for releasing varieties from breeding stations to farmers for commercial cultivation.

Variety

1) A group of cultivated plants within a species which is distinguished from another variety (group) by any characters (morphologic, physiological, biochemical, or other) of significance to agriculture and which, when reproduced, retains its distinguishing characters. A variety may be derived from several pure lines which have many common features and are reasonably uniform in appearance (but not necessarily genetically pure). 2) A group of similar plants which, by structural features and performance, may be identified from other varieties (groups) in the same species. It differs from a breeding line in that it has been named and made commercially available to farmers. 3) A subdivision of a species; a group of individuals within a species which are distinct in form or function from other similar arrays of individuals in commercial production. Variety is synonymous with cultivar.

Variety group

The classification of accessions into groups based mainly on the morphological features of the adult rice plant and on grain appearance.

Variety improvement

The process of improving varieties to meet the standards required.

Variety trial

A trial in which treatments are different in the varieties that are grown and all other factors are treated equally and in a uniform system.

Vascular

Pertaining to, or having vessels that convey, fluids.

Vector

1) An organism that carries pathogens from one host to another. 2) An insect that transmits a disease. 3) A self-replicating DNA molecule that serves to transfer a DNA segment into a host cell in recombinant DNA technology.

Vegetable

A herbaceous plant grown for eating, usually eaten as part of a meal.

Vegetative

Referring to asexual (stem, leaf, root) development in plants in contrast to sexual (flower, seed) development.

Vegetative phase/stage

The period from seed germination to the panicle initiation stage.

Vegetative reproduction

The artificial reproduction of plants by taking cuttings or by grafting, not by seed.

Ventral

Pertaining to the under surface of the abdomen. On the anterior or inner surface of an organ.

Vernalization

Exposure of germinated seedlings to low temperatures to promote flowering.

Vertical growth

The vertical growth is also known as primary growth. Apical meristems are located at or near the tips of roots and shoots. As new cells form in the meristems, the roots and shoots will increase in length. A good example would be the growth of a tree in height.

Vertical resistance

Resistance controlled by one or a few major genes, in which varieties with this type of resistance are usually highly resistant to one or several pathogen races or several disease races or insect biotypes of a given species but are susceptible to others. A type of resistance which is expressed against only some biotypes of a pest species and is governed by one or more genes in the host plant, each of which corresponds to a matching gene for parasitic ability in the pest species, sometimes called gene-for-gene resistance.

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