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A small, blunt-tipped, rounded outgrowth.


An area of land that is no longer used for agriculture or for any other purpose.

Water control

To control the amount and depth of water in the rice field during the required time necessary for crop growth.

Water management

The careful, efficient and appropriate use of water. For effective water management, field should be levelled. Maintain water level up to 1 - 2 cm at the time of transplanting and increase water level up to 3 - 5 cm deep for the recovery of transplanted lines followed by shallow water level (2 - 3 cm) for the promotion of tillering. After maximum tillering stage, water should be drained to prevent unproductive tillers and also ensure the steady growth and development of plants. During heading and flowering stages water level should be maintained up to 3 - 5 cm depth. Drain out the water 5 - 7 days before harvesting. The trials on water management clearly indicated the advantage of cyclic submergence over continuous submergence across the locations with substantial water saving.

Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. Lakes, Rivers, Oceans and Groundwater). Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of Water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into Water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

Water Quality

While ample irrigation water is necessary for a productive rice crop, poor quality water can cause soil-related problems that negatively impact rice. Some of the predominant soil-related problems that affect rice include salinity (high soluble salts), zinc deficiency, phosphorus deficiency and excessive sodium, which causes poor physical soil conditions. Salinity problems are common in the rice producing regions. Rice is most sensitive to chloride and nitrate salts at the seedling growth stage. If water contains excessive solids, obvious problems such as nozzle blockages will occur. The effectiveness of some chemicals can be drastically reduced by suspended clay particles.

Water requirement

For a crop of 100 days growth duration, total water requirements vary from 675 to 4450 mm, depending on the season and soil characteristics, with 1500-2000 mm as a typical value in many lowland areas.

Water stress

The availability of water to the plants depends on the periodicity, degree of rainfall, sub-soil water status, water slope etc. Water stress may occur either due to water shortage or due to excess of water. The former is more common in India and in arid and semi-arid regions and causes Drought, while the latter is caused by the Flood and Waterlogging resulting in O2 insufficiency to the roots.

Water table

The upper surface of ground water and the level below it where the soil is saturated with water.

Water use efficiency

1) Expressed in terms of dry matter or harvested portion of the crop produced per unit of water consumed. 2) Ratio of the water used for evapotranspiration, seepage, and percolation to the sum of rainfall and irrigation supply.

Waterlogged field

A field which continuously has standing water and cannot be drained. The water level may not be deep.


Impeded drainage; or soil saturated with water but not necessarily with standing water.


The total area from which a single river collects surface water runoff; the catchment or drainage area of a river system.

Watershed degradation

A marked deterioration in the hydrological behavior of a river system which reduces the potential of land and water by causing a water flow of inferior quality, quantity and timing.

Waxy endosperm

Glutinous or waxy type of starchy endosperm, in which the starch fraction is composed of nearly 100 % amylopectin, 0-2 % amylose, stains reddish brown with weak Potassium Iodide-Iodine solution. 

Waxy or glutinous rice

Waxy or glutinous rice - Milled rice with negligible or no amylose in the grain.


Any unwanted plant that is injurious to the crop.

Weed control

Prevention or eradication of weeds by physical removal (hand weeding) or limiting their growth by mechanical or chemical means.

Weed management

It is a system approach whereby whole land use planning is done in advance to minimize the very invasion of weeds in aggressive forms and give crop plants a strongly, competitive advantage over the weeds.  


A term used for chemicals that control weeds.


Removing unwanted plants by hand from a crop, or tillage action which lightly cultivates the soil for the purpose of destroying the weeds.


The adult form of a certain coleopterous species.

Western hybridization

Also called western blotting. Method to detect protein by use of an antibody directed against it.

Wet direct seeding

In wet direct seeding, seed is normally pregerminated prior to broadcasting onto recently drained, well-puddled seedbeds or into prestanding water in the fields. Wet direct seeding more commonly used in irrigated areas.

Wetbed method

Raising seedlings on a seedbed where land is prepared and puddled.

Wetbed seeding

Planting of pre-germinated seed or small seedlings into a wet seedbed.

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