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Based on an exhaustive collection of terms from various sources, RiceVocs - A Compendium of Rice related vocabulary has been developed. This document along with Information Architecture is used for tagging purposes to make RKMP a semantic portal.

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Aril

An aril (or arillus) is any specialized outgrowth from the funiculus (attachment point of the seed) (or hilum) that covers or is attached to the seed.

Armyworm

The larva of the family noctuidae which often travels in large populations from field to field. The armyworm moths are ash to light brown, with mottled forewings that have irregular white or light gray spots near the extreme tip or with two pale semicircular spots in the middle. Adults migrate from the grassy areas or upland crops to ricefields and deposit their eggs. The larvae move in armies and may eat entire rice plants.

Armyworm

Armyworm

Aroma

An aroma is a volatilised chemical compound that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction. A distinct smell or odor.

Aromatic rice

Aromatic rice is one of the major types of rice, it is a medium to long-grained rice. It is known for its nut-like aroma and taste, which is said to be caused by the chemical compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. Varieties of aromatic rice include: basmati, jasmine, texmati, wehani, and wild pecan rice. When cooked, the grains have a light and fluffy texture.

Artificial diet

Food source, other than the natural host plant, consisting of amounts of various components which are mixed and provided to insects in the rearing program. The diet may be holidic (chemically pure), meridic (one or more chemically undefined materials such as wheat germ), or xenic (host plant materials plus supplemental nutrients).

Artificial fertiliser

A fertiliser manufactured from chemicals.

Artificial manure

A manufactured chemical substance used to increase the nutrient level of the soil.

Artificial medium

A substance having an agar base with different chemicals or other constituents developed to replace the normal food or diet in rearing insects or pathogens.

Ascomycetes

A group of fungi producing their sexual spores within asci.

Ascospore

A sexually produced spore borne in an ascus.

Ascus

A sac like cell of a hypha in which meiosis occurs and which contains the ascospores, usually eight.

Asexual reproduction

Reproduction that does not involve fertilization or the fusion of sexually dissimilar gametes.

Asian rice

Scientific name is Oryza sativa. The cultivated rice believed to have originated in Asia. It is renowned for being easy to genetically modify and is a model organism for cereal biology.

Aspergillus

Aspergillus is a genus consisting of several hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide. Aspergillus was first catalogued in 1729 by the Italian priest and biologist Pier Antonio Micheli. Viewing the fungi under a microscope, micheli was reminded of the shape of an aspergillum (holy water sprinkler), and named the genus accordingly.

Assimilation

1) The utilization of inorganic and organic substances in cell synthesis. 2) Uptake of CO2 by a leaf or canopy during the day time or plant foods utilized in building up a protoplasm and cell walls of the plant.

Assman’s psychrometer

Richard Assmann developed a psychrometer for accurate measurement of atmospheric humidity and temperature. This was the first instrument that was able to provide reliable temperature readings with high altitude balloons, as it was capable of shielding its thermometric elements from solar radiation.

Asymmetrical

Parts not equally or symmetrically arranged.

Atmospheric Drought

This drought occurs due to low atmospheric humidity, high wind velocity and high temperature which cause a plant to lose most of its water by transpiration, thus resulting in water deficit situations.

ATP

Adenosine TriPhosphate, a nucleotide consisting of Adenine, ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups; the major source of usable chemical energy in metabolism. On hydrolysis, ATP loses one phosphate to become adenosine diphosphate (ADP), releasing usable energy.

Attack

To cause growth retardation or an economic yield loss from disease, insect, bird or other pests.

Auger

1) A tool for boring holes, made up of a long shank with a cutting edge and a screw point. Soil augers are used to obtain samples of soil for analysis. 2) A device on a combine harvester (shaped like a large screw) which carries the grain up into the grain tank.

Auricle

1) A pair of small ear-like appendages borne at the base of the leaf blade and usually arising at the sides where the ligule and the base of the collar are joined. 2) An ear-shaped appendage, usually occurring at the junction of the leaf sheath and the blade that may not be present in older leaves.

Aus paddy

A photoperiod insensitive, rainfed, drought-prone, lowland, or upland rice, broadcast and transplanted during the early part of the wet season from March to September in Bangladesh and from April to August in East India.

Autoclave

An airtight chamber that can be filled with steam under pressure or surrounded by another chamber for the steam and that is used for sterilizing, cooking or other purposes requiring moist temperatures above 212 oF or 100 °C . Used for sterilization.

Autoinfection

Infection of a host by a microorganism or virus produced within or upon the body of the same host individual.

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